Friday, January 10, 2020

Solar Lantern

One can buy solar powered garden lights everywhere now.  They are useful for lighting up a garden path, outside patio, or your Satnogs ground station.  If you want to build one yourself, or repair an existing one that failed, here is a little circuit with only about a dozen parts, that should get you going:

There are a few tricks to this circuit.  Solar cells are diodes, therefore one could simply wire a small solar cell panel across the battery to charge it, but solar cells are also cheaply made and full of flaws, meaning that they are not good quality diodes and will slowly discharge the battery when it is dark.  Therefore it is necessary to add a series blocking diode, to avoid discharging the battery at night.

The battery is made of three Nickel Cadmium cells.  NiCd cells can be trickle charged and they are also not expensive.  The three cells will slowly charge up to 3.75V during the day.  Using a tiny 6V 1W solar panel, we don't need a charge control circuit.  Do not use Alcaline or NiMH cells - they require a complicated charger, otherwise the cells won't last.

NiCd batteries can overheat and catch fire when short circuited, so it is best to put a 150mA PolyFuse in series with it.  The PNP transistor is turned on/off with a Cadmium Sulphide photocell.  The level of light/darkness where it triggers is set with a 10k trimmer.  Put the photocell out of view of the LEDs.

The light source is made of two high brightness LEDs in series.  The maximum current flow is controlled only by the internal resistance of the batteries, the inefficient transistor and the internal resistance of the LEDs.  This is another reason for the PolyFuse - to limit the maximum current.

Two high brightness red or green LEDs in series, require about 3V to glow.  This sets the minimum discharge voltage of the battery.  If you discharge a NiCd cell below about 0.9V, then it will get damaged.

If you want to use a blue or white LED which require 3V or more to glow, then use only one LED.

You can put LEDs in series, but not in parallel.  If you parallel them, the LED with the lowest forward voltage will light up, the other one will stay dark.

The whole circuit can be constructed inside the lid of a glass flask, with the solar panel on top, so now you have a good use for an empty Nescafe coffee powder bottle.  I learned over the years that one should mount a project PCB on the lid of a box using a few nylon/brass stand-offs.  Doing this, makes it much easier to work on the project than when it is way down in the bottom of the box!

You can buy all the parts from an online high tech toy shop such as Jameco or Sparkfun

If you want to learn more about wind and solar power systems, there is real no nonsense information here:

Have fun!


Monday, November 18, 2019

T'is The Season of Blinky Lights

I like to play with old fashioned neon tubes.  They make a soft and friendly mystical glow and are especially good for a night light, so you don't fall down the stairs.

Seven of Nine

...and for really, really slow blinky lights, see the VASCO project at

Have fun!


Saturday, November 16, 2019

Glue Pull Dent Removal

My little Dustbin suffered a parking garage bump from a much bigger SUV with a bumper above the level of mine - dunno who dunnit.  To pass the yearly road safety inspection, all crash damage must be repaired, but the law doesn't say anything about the quality of the repair...

Since I didn't want to spend money on an old clunker, I yanked the dent out with hot glue and dowel rods.  This works, because modern paint adheres extremely well to the metal.  It really doesn't come off easily.

There are many videos on Yootoob about no repaint hot glue dent pulling.  Everyone wants you to buy their fancy tools and special glue.  You don't really need any of that and prolly have everything you need in your tool box already.  I recommend watching a couple of those videos before you start, to give you some ideas.

I know how to do serious body work, I can weld anything that will melt and spray paint whatever needs paint, but where I live now, I don't have the tools - or the time.

A door is something you slam - therefore, if one would use Bondo to fill a door or hatch dent, then after a few months (if you are lucky) it may pop off and then you need to do it all over again.

Due to the two long creases in the hatch, I did not expect the dent pull to be a perfect job and just wanted it to look better - and pass the vehicle road worthy inspection.  I actually managed to pull most of the creases out with the big round dowels.  A shaped dowel would have done a better job of it though.

The dowel was a garden rake handle. I sawed a few pieces off one end and attached wire loops and then used the remainder as a lever, braced against a wood block and the bumper.  This method according to O'l Archimedes, could move the earth.  It worked a treat.

Pulling a dent this way, is a rather disconcerting experience, since the force is really huge and the dowel pops off with a loud bang.  A bottle of alcohol is needed to clean the panel and it helps to remove the glue.  You need a sharp nylon scraper (and a hair dryer on medium) to get the glue off the car.  You can to some degree control the strength of the pull, by how long you wait for the glue to cool.  If you wait too long, then you can pull little pieces of paint off, so don't!

Later, I also fixed two deep little door dings with a single pull each - I just put my knee against the car and yanked, but you need to be fairly strong, to pull a glue tab off without a big lever and in the middle of a car panel, you may not have a handy and strong fulcrum position for a wood block.

The pictures say it all:

Good enuff...  It could be improved with a sharp wooden pin and a mallet to drive the high spots back, but that will take many hours.

I just need some wax car polish to get the last of the glue off.

Lessons Learned
Dent pulling works best on rounded surfaces.  It is ideal for fixing a rounded fender bender.

Dent pulling may not be satisfactory on a flat panel, like a door - easier to push it out from the inside.  When a door gets banged in, the frame  usually also bends a bit.  The result is that when you pull/push the dent out, the panel may bong back and forth like an oil can.  If that happens, you need to stretch the door a little with a hydraulic press.  You may be able to fudge that by bending the edges of the door in a tiny little bit with a rubber mallet, to pull the panel tighter.

Be careful where and how you place a fulcrum for your pulling lever, or you may end up with a new dent.

Take it slow, work from the outside in and don't wait too long for the glue to go completely cold, since then it may adhere so strongly, that you pull little flakes of the paint off.  If you think the pull dowel is stuck too strongly, use a hair dryer on medium, to warm the panel up, or pour hot water over the work area.

You don't have to do it all at once.  If you are not damaging the paint, then you can work on the spot a little bit over multiple evenings, or weekends.

If you don't care too much, then it will look like my photos - much better, but a little bit wavy.  If I would paint the lower part of the hatch matt black, or stick a reflecting tape chevron on it to warn the next 1d10t, then one should not notice the wavy repair.

Have fun!


Sunday, October 20, 2019

It's The Final Count Down...

In a couple decades, will we look back at the present climate scare and laugh, or will we all be extinct in 12 years? Not 11, not 13, exactly 12 years.

It is probably wise to be a sceptic, or a just a realist, but clearly, many people find it much more fun to be alarmist.

The Venice mayor says the city is flooding due to climate change:

Venice - Flooded

Oops, sorry, that was low tide...

Venice - Hung out to dry
Err... Which is it now?

The city of Venice is sinking into the muck at a rate of 200 mm per century - 14 centuries ago, when the cathedral was built, it was 2.8 meters higher than it is today and this 1.8 meter flood would have been 1 meter below St Marc's square.  Eventually Venice will be destroyed, so do visit it while it is still there, but the real reason for the sinking is geological plate tectonics - ditto for New Orleans.

Do you remember the pictures of the poor starving polar bears due to Global Warming?

Churchill now has a polar bear jail, due to the bear population explosion:

What happened to Global Cooling?

Ewing and Dunn worried about the next Ice Age:



We will probably eventually have an ice age, since they seem to happen every 20,000 years or so and it will destroy the whole planet, but I'm not going to worry about it.

David Suzuki is a Bio-Tech Sceptic and a Global Warming Alarmist:

His daughter agreed with him on most things:

On the whole, global warming is much better than global cooling and another ice age.   Beach front property in Canada and Russia may become very popular thanks to global warming.  You should buy a plot now in Innuvik or Yakkutsk before everyone else clues in and prices go up!  In contrast, an ice age will erase all traces of mankind from the planet.

Heat Trapping Trace Gases
If CO2, which is all of 0.04% of the atmosphere, is such a fantastic greenhouse gas, then it should be brilliant as an insulator between double glazing, right?

Err... nope... not exactly:

The Extinction Crisis:

Dozens of species are going extinct every day!

Err... that is, 14 so far this century - almost one per year:

…and Panicky little Greta Thunberg?

At least, there are no hair dressers or fashionistas behind her.

Tony Heller says Don't Panic.  His video is really worth watching:

Well, it feels fine outside to me and I live in the desert, so, please stop scaring the children.

Tomorrow and 20 years from now, we will be fine!

Have fun,


Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Olde Skool Blinken Lights

How did people make blinky lights before transistors, LEDs and the venerable 555 timer?

T'was the Night Before Christmas - Only Passive Parts

If you would venture outside during a sociable hour, you should see a very bright yellow lamp in the sky - the sun - yeah, that one - amazing isn't it?

The sun is a huge nuclear powered neon lamp - not the kind of thing you can make in your radio shack, but if you go and dig deep into the scary nether regions of your junk box, you may find a couple of NE2 neon bulbs.  (Put on some gloves, you may have to dig so deep you may cut a finger - I did... yeow...)

New bulbs only cost a few pence, so if you are scared of spiders, or other unspeakable things lurking in the bottom of your junk box, next time you order toys from Digikey or Mouser, include a handful of them.  Neons can make any new project look retro-cool with a mystical yellow glow.

A neon bulb starts to glow at about 90 Volt and stops glowing at about 60 Volt.  This non-linear behaviour can be used to make a flasher, using only passive parts, but the required high voltage capacitors can be expensive.  Look for grade X or X2 self healing polymer, or self extinguishing ballast capacitors - to avoid burning your house down.  Electronics is not a cheap hobby, even for the simplest looking things, but a fire costs rather more.

The anode and cathode don't glow.  The neon gas glows a short distance above the negative element.  The glowing region is therefore bigger than than the metal element, which gives a neon globe a unique charm.  With DC, it glows on one side and with AC, on both sides - actually, it flickers.

How does the flasher work?  Same as a two transistor multivibrator, but without the transistors...  The neon bulb that happens to turn on first at 90 Volt, drops its voltage to 60 Volt, causing the capacitor to pull the 2nd neon down to 30 Volt, extinguishing the lamp and then the capacitor charges up the other way, until the 2nd neon reaches 90 Volt and fires also, causing its voltage to drop to 60 Volt, pulling the 1st neon down to 30 Volt through the capacitor, which extinguishes it.  The capacitor then charges the other way again until the 1st neon reaches 90 Volt and fires, drops to 60 Volt, pulling the voltage on the 2nd neon down to 30 Volt, extinguishing it, ad infinitum.

One can make a flasher with only a single bulb, or many in a ring - then it will rotate, or go crazy - but that is expensive because of all the capacitors.  Note that 400V capacitors should not blow up immediately on a half wave rectified circuit (I measured 346V DC at my home), but since the mains voltage is awfully 'dirty', 600 or 1000V caps would last longer, though they cost more.

Eventually I found an old glass test tube and built 7 bulbs into it - the above random flasher.   I then needed a nice wooden base to hide the little PSU in and stand it up - three coasters glued together, with some holes drilled in the middle and top ones.

Please don't put an open neon circuit on a Christmas tree - an innocent kiddy may poke a finger at it - rather plonk your wonderful art creation in a little plastic box from Daiso, since the whole circuit is live and dangerous.

Next time you look at the sun, smile and wonder how life would have coped if it blinked and we lived on a giant disco ball...

A NE2 Cosmic Ray Particle Detector
The missus and I have property in Slovakia, which is sort of next door to the Chernobyl accident area in Ukraine.  I have therefore wondered about building a radiation detector and the Ukraine mess gives me a good excuse to try to detect high energy particles in a novel way. Doing it the usual way with a scintillation tube, would be boring!

Glow tubes can detect various kinds of radiation and if you aim a radar set at a glow tube, then it will light up, but a tiny little NE2 tube is not very sensitive - and very few people have a radar set in their radio shack.  However, one can bias the tube to just below its strike voltage - when a high energy (beta or gamma) particle then comes tootling along, the bulb may strike and keep glowing.  This may take a while, since the tube is very small and the odds of a hit is therefore low, but I would expect to see a strike maybe once or twice an hour, due to background radiation.  This requires testing the tubes and selecting ones with almost the same strike voltage - so you will need a big handful of them to sort through.

I don't smoke, so due to a lack of cigarette packets, I design circuits on sticky notes, mkay? 

A sticky note makes a good size hobby circuit.  It takes about 3 hours to find the parts in my junk box(es) and 15 minutes to build it...

I build high voltage circuits on Turret Boards - Digikey and Mouser have them in various sizes.  This keeps the wires safely far apart.  The resistors should be 1/2 Watt to handle the high voltage.  Small 1/4 Watt resistors may result in cryptic smoke signals when they arc over.  Always put a fuse in - I use Polyfuses.  When they trip, I don't have to go and dig for a new fuse, I just clear the fault and wait a little bit for it to cool down.  Always over design your circuits for much higher power than you need, then they will last a long time.

Normally, it doesn't make sense to wire neon tubes in parallel.  If you do, you won't get any more light, since only one bulb will turn on - the one that happens to have the lowest strike voltage - and the others will never do anything - they'll just sit there and sulk.  However, to count particles, one needs a physically large detector, so wiring ten or more of them in parallel, will increase the odds that any one of them will strike.  It will also be cool to know that a particle struck in a specific spot - like whack a mole.

So, here is my take on a $1 Particle Detector. "Eight cosmic-ray showers touch each square metre of the Earth's surface each second" -  I have no idea whether this detector will actually work, but let's find out what happens.

Yus keep yer kotton picken fingers in yer pokkets when yer turn er on...

OK, I built it and it probably works, but little neon tubes are clearly not the world's most sensitive particle detector.  If it detects something, then you should probably run away!

That 330k resistor is best made of a 220k + 47k + 47k potentiometer.  Adjust the pot until the circuit oscillates, then back off till it juuust stops.  (One of the lamps in the detector array will be more sensitive than the others, no matter how well you select them).  Then, you need to find a source of very energetic beta and gamma particles - fly to Fukoshima, get a chunk of uranium ore, a gas lamp sock, a smoke detector, or your great grampaw's pocket watch...

This circuit is similar to the above astable circuit.  The first neon acts as an autoreset, so that it can detect the next particle, without one having to press a reset button. This reset method works remarkably well.  Now if I can just get it to actually detect something.  Well, OK, I guess NOT detecting anything is actually good.

I think what I need instead of the miniature tubes, is a big neon strobotron tube.  These were used as a car ignition timing lights for tuning prehistoric cars - I had one to tune my VW Combi camper van:

Since this kind of neon tube is much larger, I should have better luck with it and I should be able to misuse it in a similar way as a particle detector, since it is after all just a fancy neon tube, but where to get one today - I'm sure I don't have one in my junk box.  I would also need to make a very stable power supply, to be able to bias the tube very close to the trigger level, without getting false triggers due to noise.  Ah, the joys of analogue signals and noise...

Maybe there is something in my favourite high voltage toy store:

PS - I was playing with Neons again and then thought that I should wire three bulbs in series - if any one strikes due to a particle, they should then all light up.  I haven't tried it yet...

Note that if you want to use an oscilloscope to debug a high voltage circuit, make sure that the 'scope is floating with the earth wire NOT connected and set the probe to x10, then use one hand only.

Nixie Night Light
A Nixie tube is a fancy neon bulb with multiple, shaped cathodes.  Same as the neon bulbs above, one can power a Nixie with a very simple, direct mains power supply using only a diode, capacitor and 100k anode resistor, provided that there is no human or computer interface that can be zapped by mains spikes.

Nixie - Seven of Nine

Ol Albert Einstein remarked:
A thing should be as simple as possible, but no simpler.

For a Nixie night light, you don't need a switching PSU, or a microcomputer.  You don't even need a circuit board.  The little NE2 tube I have in there is only to show me that the thing is plugged into the mains while I am debugging it.  Your night light should have either a NE2 or a Nixie - not both.

If you are happy with a single glowing digit, then the above can make a simple, mystical night light.  If you wire a Cadmiumsulphide photo cell in series with a 100k trimmer across the Nixie anode and cathode, then you will be able to find a point (about 65k) where it will turn off during the day and on at night.  Tweak it with an insulated screw driver, or you may get a surprise!

Nixie - Neon Night Light

If you build multiples, then you can wire each one with a different number, or symbol.  This is also a good way to breathe new life into a worn tube with one or more bad digits.

Nixie Shift Register
I would like to make a simple circuit that will step a Nixie through the ten numbers, without having to use a computer, or a double handful of transistors - just to make it either simple with a minimal number of parts, or a bit weird!

NE2 Ring Counter

A Nixie tube looks like multiple neon bulbs stuffed into a single bottle, which means that once one cathode struck, there is plasma swirling around the bottle, which makes it easier for the other cathodes to also strike and one can get into a ghosting situation where multiple cathodes light up at the same time.

Nixie - A Neon Bulb With Ten Cathodes

While it is sort of possible to make a Nixie flash in a relaxation oscillator using one cathode, it doesn't seem possible to make it work like a ring counter all on its own, stepping through all ten numbers, since there is just too much plasma in the tube and the cathodes are too big with uneven distances to the anode.

To make a relaxation oscillator, you got to bias the bulb such that it is barely off, with a large resistor on the cathode. Then when you put a capacitor across the cathode resistor, it will cause the bulb to light up and start flashing.  A Nixie however, has very large cathodes and they don't extinguish suddenly over the whole cathode.  A seven may keep glowing on its corner for example, then with a capacitor added, the 7 will breathe - go brighter and darker if you look closely, but one cannot call that flashing.  With an IN8-2 tube, I could only get the 1 and the dot to flash, but that is not really worth the bother.

It also doesn't seem possible to directly drive a Nixie tube with a NE2 ring counter, since little NE2 bulbs don't draw enough current to handle a Nixie as a load (trigger tubes will work, as in the figure below).  One could make opto-couplers by strapping Cadmiumsulphide photocells (About $1 each - bah humbug!) to the NE2 tubes and using those on the cathodes to fire the Nixie digits, but that is a bit of a hassle, though simpler than the trigger tube design.  I don't see any other practical transistorless way though.

There is just no simple way to make a Nixie count its toes and how about using a Nixie as a particle detector? Nope - doesn't work either!

A Few References
GE Glow Lamp Manual, 1965:

Counters and Counting Circuits, 1955:

Glow Transfer Counting Tubes:

Signalite, Ring Counters:

Hivac Cold Cathode Tubes, 1958:

Burroughs Nixie Indicator Tubes:

Many moons ago, people actually built calculators with these glow bulbs, long before anyone thought about the effects of cosmic rays on computer circuits and the clock speed of a super computer could be measured with a stop watch.

Have fun!


Tuesday, August 6, 2019

Differential Backups Made Simple

To backup or not to backup.  That is the question.

Who likes to make backups? Anyone, Aynone?

Hmm, I thought so...

Versioned Backups
I prefer to make backups with very simple tools, since when things go south, I don't want to have to install a complicated system just to get my data back.

Most UNIX backup systems are based on rsync and by using a careful system of  hard links (multiple new names for the same old file), differential backups can save you oodles of disk space in the long run, while making it very easy to step through an archive and retrieve specific versions of old files:

Three for the Price of One
The original article by Mike Rubel describes how to keep three backups for the price of one, using a combination of hard links and rsync. That idea then spawned the rsnapshot (pull) and rdiff-backup (push) scripts.

The method described below, creates three directory trees of all my data for today, some day and who knows when, without using significantly more disk space than a single backup.  One could similarly expand it to five, ten or more backups - it only depends on your use case and forgetfulness. I can browse the tree on the backup server using a common file browser and click-drag-drop a lost/damaged file back to the host.  This is as simple as it gets and just the way I like it.

Since the PSU of my Raspberry Pi server blew up, I now have a little NUC with a 2TB solid state disk that has all my music, movies and backups as a WiFi enabled file server, using this idea to good effect.   (The RPi is fine, it just needs a new USB widget.)

Differential Backup Script
On my MacBook, my backup script is directly based on Mike's and looks like this:
#! /bin/bash
# Rsync to Muzak and keep 3 old hard linked copies.
# Assumes the public key is installed in /home/herman/.ssh
ssh herman@muzak "mv ~/Backups/Herman.3 ~/Backups/Herman.tmp"
ssh herman@muzak "mv ~/Backups/Herman.2 ~/Backups/Herman.3"
ssh herman@muzak "mv ~/Backups/Herman.1 ~/Backups/Herman.2"
ssh herman@muzak "mv ~/Backups/Herman.0 ~/Backups/Herman.1"
ssh herman@muzak "mv ~/Backups/Herman.tmp ~/Backups/Herman.0"
ssh herman@muzak "cp -al ~/Backups/Herman.1/. ~/Backups/Herman.0"
rsync -avze ssh --progress --delete --max-size=20M --exclude "*Trash*" --exclude "*bak" \
--exclude "*old" --exclude "*cache*" --exclude "*Cache*" --exclude "*iso" ~/ herman@muzak:~/Backups/Herman.0/

The script follows the principle of: Include everything and Exclude the cruft. This makes the script maintenance free.

I simply run this little script whenever I feel like it.

La voila!


Friday, August 2, 2019

Micro Wind Genny

Who didn't play with whirlygigs as a child?  I sure had hours of fun with paper and wood twirly whirlies, but I frequently wondered about making something bigger, that can produce useful power.

Fifty odd years later...

Little Alternator with 6 LEDs

A small three phase alternator that can be had for the princely sum of about $5 from, can produce a few Watts of power.  Twirl it by hand to light up 6 LEDs.

I took it to our production manager Siegfried Losch, who is always willing to play with a new toy and we stuck it into a drill press.  With no load, it generated 14V AC rms when running at 3000 rpm.  So it can charge a 12V SLA motor cycle battery when hooked to a high speed engine, but it will not do much with a wind rotor that will only turn at about 200 rpm or less.

If you are content with 6 or maybe 12 LEDs to light up a little tree in your backyard, then you can skip all the electronics below, get some balsa and go carve a propellor.

If you are like me and want to learn hands-on about the issues with wind power, then you can invest/waste (depending on your point of view!) some more money and time and build a boost power supply to charge a battery in your radio shack, or power a SatNOGS ground station with it

Boost PSU
Assuming that the alternator can be spun up to generate at least 5V DC, you can build a little boost PSU using a triple five timer and a coil.  One can buy a fancy switcher from Linear Technology, but next time you want to do the same, the IC you used before, is guaranteed to be obsolete.  I like learning new things, but I don't like having to reinvent the wheel all the time.  The venerable 555 timer however, has developed a life of its own - similar to the 741 op amp - somebody will always make them.

NE555 Boost PSU Circuit

With this simple circuit, one can get almost any output voltage to power a toy, from 14V to charge a battery, to 160V for a Nixie tube.  Just change the 18k resistor and use higher voltage output capacitors.  If you play with high voltages and thermionic valves, then I can assume that you know what you are doing and don't need to look at this circuit - but those who don't know what they are doing yet, may find it a shocking experience...

Before you start building this, please put a rubber carpet on your workshop floor.  You won't regret it.

The components are not critical, but you need to take care to make the design efficient, otherwise you will not get much power from it - if any.  The most important parts are the MOSFET and the Diode.  Both of those are typical parts of switch mode PSUs - ultrafast, high voltage devices.  The electrolytic capacitors should be at least 25V rated, preferably high ripple current types.  The coil is 100uH 5A, or you can wind 30 turns on a ferrite bobbin and see how it goes.

Boost Switch Mode Battery Charger

Note that a two transistor astable will do the trick also, but its output waveform is not very square, which will cause the MOSFET switch to turn on slowly and heat up.  You would need to add a push-pull driver pair to it, making it four transistors.  Here is an alternative improved circuit which adds a few diodes to square things up: It would also need a push pull pair - so it quickly becomes more of a chore than a 555 timer.

The parts in the schematic are seriously overspecced at 5A.  This should ensure long life, but if you short the output, the transistor will immediately blow up and adding a fuse won't help.  So do try not to do that and when you buy parts, get extras - you may need them.

To say again: Before you start building this, please put a rubber carpet on your workshop floor.

How it works
The 555 timer runs as an astable oscillator which turns the MOSFET on/off.  When the MOSFET turns off, the coil generates a high voltage which pumps through the high speed diode and charges the output capacitor.

The ideal switching speed should be fast enough to avoid saturating the coil, but not so fast that the diode/FET becomes inefficient.  All depends on the input/output voltage and current.  I expect having a 5V input and 14V output with a current of maybe 100 mA.  What I'll actually get is anyone's guess.  The 555 timer is tuned for 10 kHz to begin with - a nice round number - and round numbers are always wrong...  Well, it turned out to be good enough.

NE555 Oscillator - 10 kHz

The feedback circuit is optional.  I added it to limit the output voltage when there is no load, to avoid blowing up the output capacitor - set it to something between 15 and 20 Volt.  You could do the same with a 15V 5W zener diode crowbar.

The NPN transistor will turn on hard, once its base to emitter voltage reaches about 0.65V and pull the Control input down, the timing capacitor will Discharge and the Output will drop, turning the MOSFET off.  Tweak the little 1k trimmer to limit the maximum output voltage to something above 14.4V that won't blow the 25V output capacitor.  When you hook up a small 12V Sealed Lead Acid battery, the voltage will drop and will eventually stabilize at about 14.4V to 14.8V when fully charged.

Since this is a micro power system with a very small wind genny, it will at best only trickle charge a SLA. One could therefore hook it permanently to a SLA, in which case the output capacitor and feedback circuit are both not required.  The chemistry of the SLA will limit the voltage to about 14.4V and it can stay connected forever.  However, if one would disconnect it, then a high voltage will result, so it is best to develop the PSU as a standalone module that can operate without sparks and smoke, on its own.

Boost Switcher Test
Testing the circuit is tricky, since without a load, it doesn't run (only runs for a few cycles, then stop) and putting a big load on it right off the bat is not a good idea either.  So keep the 555 timer output open circuit, till you are sure it runs, then keep a scope on the 555 output, connect it to the MOSFET and observe that it stops oscillating almost immediately.  Try different loads and tweak the trimmer, till it stabilizes at about 15V.

Note that your oscilloscope should be floating.  Cut the earth wire in the power lead and put a sticker on the plug to identify it as such. I always get annoyed when people steal/borrow my scope power lead. The culprit then has a suicide cable - Justice be done I guess...

With strip board, take care that you don't make a short circuit somewhere. A thorough cleaning with alcohol and an inspection with a magnifier is recommended before you turn it on.

Hooked to a bench PSU set to 5V and current limit set to 200 mA initially, with a SLA as a load, I pushed the Vero Board circuit to 2A (24 Watt) and the MOSFET hardly got warm, so this circuit is very efficient.  The input voltage stabilizes at the minimum voltage that the 555 can operate at, which is about 4.5V, below that, nothing will happen.

Once it is working properly, clean it with alcohol and then lightly spray it with conformal coating (e.g V66) to keep it working.

This circuit seems to be efficient enough that you could use it with a better motor cycle alternator, but don't hook it to a 1 kW generator, unless you are a masochist...

The output of the alternator needs a full wave rectifier, which can be made from 6 diodes.  Again, in the interest of efficiency, don't use garden variety rectifier diodes.  You need 6 Schottky diodes, which have a much lower forward voltage drop than the ubiquitous 1N4001. MOSFET Ideal Diodes would be even better, but too expensive for a toy maybe.

Schottky Diode Rectifier

I have an amazing collection of parts in my workshop, but I am fresh out of Shottkys,  which is why I started with the PSU, while I wait for to deliver my diodes.  The SB5100T, will do.  I don't expect to get much current out of this little genny, so a 5A diode should not be stressed and last for a long time.

One thing I learned over the years with hobby electronics, is to always seriously overrate the parts.  For a a little toy, I don't want to spend much time designing and usually just use a first order thumb suck.  Therefore it is easy to overlook something and end up with disappointing smoke signals.  However, if one overrates the parts by 5 or 10 times, then it either works or not, but usually doesn't go pop.

This circuit will work fine in normal weather, but if there is a storm, the alternator could possibly generate more than 18V and blow up the 555 timer.  If you are worried about losing 40 cents, then for another 30 cents, you could add a big fat 15V, 5W zener diode or two as a crowbar, to clamp the output and prevent sparks and smoke in the PSU:

If you use a decent little generator to charge a battery, then one would hope that the battery will eventually get full.  A SLA is fully charged once it reaches 14.4V to 14.8V (check the data sheet!).  Therefore you could make a voltage controlled switch that will toggle between the SLA and a dummy load (A big resistor / space heater), which needs to be sized the same as the maximum capacity of the generator.  A wind generator must always have a load, otherwise it could overspeed and fly apart in strong wind.

Slip Rings
A wind genny doesn't need slip rings.  The wind normally doesn't go round and round and if you ever get caught up in a tornado, then you will have more to worry about than a few twisted wires on your toy wind genny.  Just run the wires loosely down the post (or inside the post if it is a pipe) and let it be.  It will not wind up hundreds of times.

If you put the rectifier diodes at the genny, then you only need two wires - a copper saving of 33%.

Carving a Prop
Most of the fun is carving the prop.  If you have never done it before, it is very easy.  You get a piece of soft wood and carve it, till it looks sort of like a prop - that's it.  For good measure, balance it with a small piece of solder.

Just bear in mind that a wind prop is opposite from a model aircraft prop.  You want the leading edge to lead, the trailing edge to trail and the wind to blow onto the flat underside of the wing.  The curved side should be leeward.

If you want to go seriously scientific, then you can design a fancy aerodynamic wind prop, thanks to the Berlin Institute of Technology

Q-Blade Wind Prop Designer

If you are like me, then you can wing it, but it will help if you keep a few things in mind:
  • Any blade shape will work, since the wind is free, but a proper aerodynamic shape will not make noise.
  • For a small rotor, the optimal pitch is 4 to 9 degrees angle of attack, so I use 6 - which is about what a helicopter uses for take-off. 
  • The efficiency of a blade depends very much on the trailing edge, which must be thin and sharp.
  • As for the profile, if it more or less looks like a wing, then it will work.  I use the NACA-TS (thumb suck) profile.
How big should the blade be?  Well, that is why you have two thumbs, one for the profile and one for the size, but here is a calculator to make it easier: and here is a study of the optimum pitch angle for small rotors:

I decided to make a test blade 300mm by 50mm and slightly S-shaped, cut from a Japanese Daiso store bread board.  After about an hour of carving, it looked like this:

Poplar Test Rotor

A power tool will make quick work of it, but with a lot of dust.  Living in the desert is bad enough, I don't want to breathe wood dust also, so I used a carving knife.  A practical rotor that will generate about 40 Watts in a soft breeze of 5 m/s, would need to be about 600 mm in diameter - twice the size of my amazing carving skillz test blade.  So I have to make a bigger balsa wood laminate and try again.

There are many prop carving tutorials on the wild wild web, but all you need to do is glue a few sheets of balsa together with white glue, drill a hole for the shaft - glue two washers over the hole, draw some guide lines, get your jig saw and sharpen your knife:

The poplar test prop proved to be too heavy - too much momentum.  So, get some balsa and go for it!

Off The Shelf Wind Gennies
For a real power system, it appears to be best to buy a 1.5 kW wind genny from a company that make equipment for farm use.  Farmers like things that are simple and rugged and which can be repaired with a welder and a piece of scrap metal.  The low cost Chinese kit on AliExpress are good for a learning experience, but are not suitable for serious use.  Missouri Wind and Solar seems to have the right idea: There are similar outfits in Europe too:

More information here:

Loads and Brakes
A larger wind generator must always have a load, otherwise it may overspeed and fly apart in a strong wind.  A wind generator controller must therefore handle various issues: Over speed, over voltage, dummy load and brake.

If you want to lower a running wind genny, then you have to avoid getting hit by the blades, which is a real safety problem - even a little toy like the above could give you a rather unpleasant whack.

You can brake a wind genny by shorting out the coils (before the diodes), but when running, it is best to short the windings one at a time with a little pause, to allow the speed to reduce gradually, else the rotor or spindle could break.  Therefore mount three high current toggle switches on the generator mast for a safety stop and flip them one at a time to bring the device to a stop, before you lower the mast.

Grid Tied Generator
Grid Tied Invertors are becoming popular - some searching on AliExpress will find many low cost Chinese GTIs of interesting quality to experiment with.  With one of these, your wind genny (up to about 1.5 kW) can feed power directly into a wall socket.  Any power that is generated, will then reduce your home electricity bill from the power company.    One can do this, without the need for an expensive battery.

However, in the middle of the night, your home may not consume enough power and your generator system will start to feed back into the grid.  In some states, the utility company will pay you for this power, but if you don't have a smart meter, the excess power will add to your bill and you will have to pay the power company to take your excess power!

To avoid the reverse power flow, you need a clamp around the power line to your home, to sense the direction of power flow and when you produce excess power, the system should switch over to a dummy load and heat water or air instead.  Therefore, be sure to buy a GTI with a Limiter  function, so that you can hook up a heater to warm your home in the cold of night, which will then subtract from your gas/wood heating bill.

Grid Tied Load
A GTI Limiter measures the instantaneous voltage and current and when the two are in phase, your home is using power - when out of phase, your home is producing power.

If you have multiple sources of power - say a dozen solar panels and two 1.5 kW wind gennies all hooked to separate Grid Tied Invertors, then it may be difficult to avoid feeding power back to the grid and you may need a separate Grid Tied Load, to consume your excess power and it doesn't look like one can buy such a thing as a standalone unit anywhere.

Grid Tied Load Controller

Here is a concept Grid Tied Load Controller circuit which I'll put out here and maybe one day I'll try it myself.  A load controller by anyone else, will have 25 ICs and a Raspberry Pi computer with a LCD display and a web server in there, but I keep my hobby circuits simple and 10 discrete parts are already a lot...

Two Triacs in series make an AND gate.  The voltage is sensed through a resistor and the current is sensed through a current transformer.  The current loop must be oriented such that when the voltage is positive and the current is negative (or the voltage is negative and the current is positive), the two triacs must turn on.  This will pulse the load resistor (water or space heater) for a half cycle, when your home is producing too much power.

This kind of triac circuit will be very noisy and will require a coil and snubbers to suppress RFI and not fritz your neighbour's TV.  I have not built and tested it.  The whole circuit is live and dangerous and is not for the faint of heart - it is for real men with hair on their teeth, who have to lick a finger to feel 220VAC...

Postscript - Automotive Alternators
I have on occasion, wondered why people don't use low cost 2nd hand automotive alternators for wind generators.  The usual excuse is that they don't work well at low speed and therefore needs a gear/pulley system to increase the speed to about 3000 rpm, which is a mechanical complication.  Others point out that they need a field current, which make them inefficient, compared to a permanent magnet alternator.

Some people will go to a lot of trouble to modify an automotive alternator, to fit permanent magnets to the rotor and rewind the stator, to make it more efficient.

However, the wind is free and old alternators are almost free, so efficiency doesn't matter much!

The real problem is that at very low speed, the amount of current used for the field, may exceed the current that can be generated by the stator, plus the rectifier diode losses, so that at low speed it may not generate any net power.  That is true for a simple control circuit of the type that one finds built into the back of an automotive alternator.

If however, one would replace the prehistoric built-in rectifier/controller with a system that monitors the rotational speed and when above a minimum speed, boosts and pulse width modulates the field current at the optimum level (about 2A for a 50A alternator), in order to extract the maximum amount of energy out of the wind, without slowing the rotor down causing it to stall, then an automotive alternator can be made to work at low speed, without resorting to the use of rare earth magnets.

I will eventually get back to this, just to prove the point.

Have fun!